This morning I discovered a short news item. In Mórahalom, a town in the County of Csongrád, a certain Ilonka néni died two days before her ninetieth birth. Let’s start with the Hungarian media’s annoying habit of calling every woman over the age of 50 or 60, at least if she is not a famous Budapest celebrity, “néni,” a word hard to translate. “Nagynéni” means “aunt,” but children address every adult female as “néni.” Students can call their female teacher “tanitó néni.” In the case of an elderly woman, it simply means “granny.”
In any event, Ilonka néni, according to the mayor of Mórahalom, was so eager to receive the birthday card Viktor Orbán sends every ninety-year-old that she allegedly asked the mayor to read the prime minister’s greetings at her funeral. Even though she didn’t quite make it to her birthday, the mayor accommodated. Moreover, the card was buried with her. I think this says a lot about the modern version of hero worship in Hungary. Mind you, this is not new. Many of us still vividly remember the scene when another “néni” kissed Viktor Orbán’s hand. That was a long time ago during his first term as prime minister. At the time one of the members of my political discussion group felt that it would be enough to print thousands and thousands of posters depicting this scene to assure Viktor Orbán’s defeat.
The threat of massive flooding in Hungary provided the prime minister with a golden opportunity to demonstrate his managerial competence and personal compassion. Viktor Orbán’s staff must have put up at least a hundred pictures showing the prime minister in every possible pose as he took charge of protecting the nation from Mother Nature’s vengeance.
A natural disaster usually serves the government in power well if the operation is executed smoothly and the final result is satisfactory. Admittedly, Viktor Orbán’s decision to show himself as the man in charge of the operation entailed a level of risk. What if at the end scores of towns get flooded and several people lose their lives? In this case the prime minister’s heavy involvement might backfire.
Since I know nothing about waterways and flooding, I don’t know whether the Hungarian authorities could predict the maximum height of the water once it got to Hungary. We know that in Germany the damage caused by the flood on the Danube was great and scores of people died. In Passau it was only in 1501 that there was such a threat to the city. I heard less about Austria and I read that the city of Bratislava was spared. Therefore it is possible that the experts didn’t expect anything more serious than the floods of past years. If this is true, it wasn’t much of a political risk for Orbán to show himself as the man in charge of the whole operation. Exaggerating the possible trouble might also have served the prime minister’s political ends.
In any case, his admirers, who are numerous, have been writing comments on Viktor Orbán’s Facebook page that are over the top. As early as June 4 Orbán, accompanied by István Tarlós, the mayor of Budapest, stood on the bank of the Danube which was not yet flooded and intently gazed at the river. This picture inspired the following comments: “The Prime Minister is there on the dike. He is not lazy. At last there is a real leader of the country. Thanks you for the unselfish work performed on behalf of the country.” And “Viktor don’t give in if the flood comes or if you fight against the European Union or the Bolshevik opposition. The Hungarians are with you.”
Practically every picture is entitled “Leading the defense….” There are several pictures showing Orbán intently studying large maps. Those who don’t admire him as much as some of the people who comment on his Facebook page made fun of his presumed understanding of the import of these maps.
The picture that was copied over and over, and reproduced here, shows Orbán sitting with a huge map in front of him. Orbán isn’t looking at the map; he’s gazing off into the distance. But this didn’t bother one of his admirers, who commented: “This is what a decent Hungarian looks like. Someone who is truly interested in the fate of the country! We have an extraordinary prime minister!”
And he is a good Hungarian in other ways too. It cannot be a coincidence that the staff felt that they have to show the people that Viktor Orbán is one of them. Here is this fancy Ferenc Gyurcsány who cooks all sorts of weird dishes–Italian, Indian, Thai. No, our man eats “kolbász” that he himself helps make in Felcsút. And the comment? “Never mind the luxury minibus. He is frugal.” In addition, he suggests that those who criticize him should be built into the dikes. “At least they would be useful.” What an uplifting Christian idea!
But the most often repeated conversation from the many videos about Orbán’s days along the Danube is the one that tells the story of his trip from Komárom to Szentendre.
György Bakondi, the head of the whole organization in blue overalls, says, “The most important task is to fill the sacks with sand.” He calls it “localized filling.” Viktor Orbán is gazing at a map, looking at danger zones. Orbán then looks at Bakondi, who nods meaningfully. . . Orbán asks Bakondi: “How much is that?” Bakondi replies, “Meaning what? In time?” Orbán pointing toward the Danube: “Until it comes up.” At this point one of the experts who is standing by tries to explain the situation, but Orbán is waiting for an answer from Bakondi: “How much water? In your opinion how high will it come up?” Bakondi: “Where? There? Yes.” … Orbán: “Are we raising it to 85?” Everybody nods. Orbán: “Will the peak be tomorrow? It will come in then, isn’t it so?” Answer: “Friday-Saturday.” Orbán: “We will take over the water level at the border on Thursday.”
Orbán’s presence made no difference from a practical point of view, but in political terms it was a capital idea. I’m sure that his popularity, which has been sagging for at least a year, will soar after the flood. While pictures circulate about a playground where Ferenc Gyurcsány was working on the levees. The pictures show that the whole playground has been flooded since. The dike didn’t hold. That is the difference between an extraordinary prime minister and the opposition losers.
If you have nothing better to do (like me), there are a huge number of videos on Orban Viktor’s Facebook page of him going around the countryside dealing with the flood, making poor György Bakondi’s life a misery.
Never mind the sheer manpower needed to tackle the flood, what about the filming? The camera crews=, sound team, film editors, associated PR ‘advisors’, (plus make-up and wardrobe?) must have spent a tremendous amount of time on this over the last week or so.
It really is like the Viktor Orban reality TV show (somewhat similar to the old Gyozike show), as we watch him eating, having coffee, watching his iPad, preparing to give press conferences, etc. etc.
Anyway, it’s really telling that all these videos are of him traipsing around the countryside. There’s not one of him in Budapest (e.g. in Bem Ter, or the rakparts). I think the closest he dared to come was Romai furdo.
anyway, without Orbans managing many ungarians would lost here lives.
I think the only thing that could help here is mockery. A ton of it. Orban who single-handedly saved Hungary from the waters!
I’m so glad you think so!
“operation entailed a level of risk”
“I don’t know whether the Hungarian authorities could predict the maximum height of the water once it got to Hungary.”
This time it was easy to predict the outcome (my humbleness did so in your blog), because none of the tributaries showed any flooding.
Here is what I was watching:
That was an excellent post. Thanks.
The notion that Viktor Orbán saved the country for the Great Flood of 2013 will now become part of the Fidesz political mythology – the mythology that says police rather than rioters were the wrongdoers in 2006, that Fidesz saved the economy from collapse in 2010, that multinational companies are behind EU objections to the Basic Law, that Hungarians wanted a new constitution in 2010, etc.
As with those, we’ll never hear the end of this one.
I do not think that people are THAT stupid. Orban overdid the acting. My prediction is that the poll numbers will not change significantly – they did not budge after the fumbled blizzard of March either.
As I was telling my friend in Budapest yesterday, if I was more cynical (not sure that’s possible), I might believe that Viktor had conjured the flood to use for political purposes.
According to my neighbor kid’s who went filling sandbags coordination was not one of the strongest points.
OT Portfolio.hu mentioned about a merger of PSZAF with the National Bank. Another independent institution bite the dust.
Sad report on Hungary.
With or without Orban, any unity is impossible.
Hungarians must wake up, and realize the sad state of their common civility.
I’m not saying there will be a big change in poll numbers. Only that Viktor’s heroic acts in the Great Flood of 2013 will be a feature in the fawning media from now until the next elections, and probably beyond.
Yes Eva. This was always my dilemma. Trying to adduce the truth from a shackled media – which I mentioned earlier.
I was almost relieved when the media (via MTI?) said that the dyke at Győrújfalu had ‘failed but we saved it’ because I realised this was news manipulation – in a potentially dangerous situation. “Surely I reasoned, they would not play games if there was a risk that people would perish, would they?” (Don’t answer!). And the ever present Orban made this westerner realise that the first casualty is the truth.
You could see in the eyes of people lined up to be ‘presented’ to him that they were nervous (or frightened) when you knew that they should be left to get on with it. If Orban misunderstood a situation – highly likely – it would lock people into a strategy that could not be changed in the event that instant decisiveness was required.
I am no royalist but you know when the Queen visits she knows not to interfere – however much she has to be accommodated in troubled times.
And at least in the English media the truth seeps through eventually – I believe. And politicians know when to leave well alone.
So I had to err on the cautious side. Certainly it was a dangerous – and foolish – game to play with peoples’ lives.
My dyke had been built after the disaster of 1954 by the people who had been affected and had never been stress tested to the new levels – to 907cms when the previous record level (in 2002) was 825cms a considerable volume of water – 82cms of unstress-tested dyke.
When you saw it so close to the top, you realised that if someone had got the sums wrong there would be an awful disaster.
And the floods upstream in Passau had not been experienced in centuries with the awful consequences you allude to.
And I mentioned earlier – would a contrarian scientist have the freedom and confidence to express their views in Orbanistan propagandaville?
So I had to err on the cautious side – and hope that it was unnecessary.
I believe, now, that it was.
But I have learnt so much for next time, for the price of two-days effort and loss of two nights sleep.
I always had in the back of my mind that it has always been my strategy to exit from a building as soon as a fire alarm sounds – even if told to stay at your desk to await further instructions. I believe many who died in 9/11 perished because of this instruction – and I know I would have been an early leaver – having worked in some of the tallest buildings in London.
So being cautious is in my nature.
And Orban’s tricks were a real nuisance and made me realise what life must have been like under communism.
Many climate scientists believe that these extremes will be more likely – and I have learnt an awful lot – like load stresses in the attic, what a 10kg evacuation bag should contain, and how useful a generator might be if services are cut – and don’t inadvertantly put the deodorant and soap in the attic!
And it reinforces my decision to ensure the electrics for the new kitchen should be above waist height.
So a more focussed strategy and lessons learned – despite Orban – and because of Orban.
A complete arsehole. (Sorry!)
The original comment shows the extent of Hungarian mindlessness: any intelligent person would’ve noted that in the clip where Orban met with the army engineer, it was HE–Orban the Magnificent–who was doing the talking….when an intelligent, involved, person would’ve listened to what the expert (or, supposed expert) had to tell him. Not Viktor.
The Hungarians who complement Orban and think him Great reminds me of Stalin’s statement:
“Can I help it if my people want a God?”
(Instead of developmental funds…the EU should send a mob of urgent psychiatric help for this hapless population!)
I can’t help but sense the vast bitterness in seeing this action and the possible consequences of Orbán gaining popularity (which I don’t really foresee, by the way).
I’m sure you thought the same about Gyurcsány’s similar flood gig series in 2006.
The elections are far away. Orbán is happy to play in this reality show and the right wing media is bolstering his supposed heroism, but but this will have zero influence in 2014. It does not add anything to his character and so many further events will take place until the elections people will forget about it.
This is a terrible post. Eva just hates VO, no matter what. There are so many other issues HS could concentrate on. Eva returns again and again to her favourite whipping boy. Sad. Also very sterile. Yes, there is an Ilona néni, in Felvidék, close to 100 years old. She was deprived of her Slovak citizenship for becoming a Hungarian citizen again, the one she was born with.
hmmm I think taxpayers should rethink the hiring of minsters, engineers, catastrophe management. Orban can do all the organizing single handedly. (We can only wish he would of been around when the blizzard hit.) I think Orban was right to take away the money from student education, as he never got educated in other then law, and look it him now, saving the whole nation single handedly!
“Orban happened to be in the city when the flood waters rushed in and, luckily for many victims of the flood, he had a boat. Without any sleep or rest for 72 hours he crisscrossed flooded areas again and again to rescue the weakest: women, children and the elderly.
During the three days of uninterrupted rescue work, Orban saved six hundred people from certain death. On the third day, the Austrian General Bratfeld flung his arms around Orban in a gesture of gratitude and admiration for what he had done. And so did all of Hungary in spirit as news of his heroism spread. The greatest Hungarian poet of the time, Mihály Vörösmarty, gave his deeds lasting fame in his ode titled Az árvízi hajós (The Boatman of the Flood)”
OR WAS THAT WESSSELENYI? My silly computer, acts up just like the MTI.
(By the way the above text is a quote from THE SPIRIT OF HUNGARY A PANORAMA OF HUNGARIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE by Stephen Sisa)
See my reply above.
Poor Ilona neni. Can you expend on your story about what happened because of the consequence loosing his Slovak citizenship? I know that many countries you are not allowed to be a dual citizen, but I was not sure what are the hard core consequences. Is Slovakia still not part of the EU? What happened to the poor lady in Hungary or in Slovakia with her?
@Joe Simple Simon:
Are you a masochist ?
You don’t have to endure this site – just delete the URL in your browser and don’t come back again!
The Forint spiked this morning at more than 301 to the € – has anyone any explanations ?
some months ago, OV was in Jordan where he advertised Hungarian competence in water management. Competence in water management? With floods almost every year? I was really wondering about this. And now they tried to control the water with bags filled with sand. But they were plastic bags? Plastic bags do not “weld”, they remain what they are, plastic bags with sand piled upon each other. So the water will continue to seep through! Any plain water engineer or anyone with some sound working brain, knows that these bags sshould be made of jute or a special water absorbing nylon. BTW jute bags are cheaper then plastic bags and more over friendly for the environment… Near Bodrog, Tisza and so one one can still observe the plastic bags which were used in the former years!
Anyone with some sound working brain (well, not you, obviously) would know that those are not plastic bags but perforated bags that, of course, allow water to penetrate and thus get soaked when in contact with water–and become even more compact and heavy to withstand the flood. Why do you assume that those with such a profession are exactly as lacking in knowledge as you?
I saw it but there was no response for me. (Not a problem, anyway.)
Sure ask the people in Vác!
There is no one point explanation, but since the economy of Hungary is not a stable economy, anything in Hungary and abroad may cause strengthening or weakening of the Forint.
Portfolio mentioned a number of reasons for the current weakening and Bloomberg only one reason (constant reducing of the interest rate).
http://www.portfolio.hu/deviza_kotveny/deviza/esik_a_forint_mi_a_hattere.185114.html (in Hungarian)
but you just did reply. lol Enjoy
“This is what a decent Hungarian looks like. Someone who is truly interested in the fate of the country! We have an extraordinary prime minister!”
The Viktor Orbán admirer who said the above is a fool!
Orbán is not just an ‘extraordinary prime minister.’ He is an extraordinary Hungarian. And the nénis l̶i̶c̶k̶i̶n̶g̶ kissing his hand is all the proof I need.
But I’m a bit of a fool too! Because, actually, Orbán is much more than an extraordinary Hungarian. In fact he belongs to that little mentioned (and only talked about in hushed voices) elite known as THE INVINCIBLE HUNGARIANS. The membership of this elite group is somewhat obscure and it’s not even certain that Árpád or Attila belong. But for sure, Orbán is a member. To live in the Age of Orbán and to walk on the same streets as this Übermensch humbles us all.
His m̶i̶r̶a̶c̶l̶e̶s̶ works are many. My beloved Hungary faced the worst flood since Noah’s time and Orbán single-handedly stopped the waters. (By comparison, Gyurcsány can’t even stop the flood of words from his mouth! There’ll be no nénis working on his hand, that’s for sure.)
I ♥ Viktor Orbán!
Altogether now. Let’s sing the national anthem: ♫♫ F̶ö̶l̶,̶ ̶f̶ö̶l̶,̶ ̶t̶i̶ Isten, áldd meg a Magyart ♪ ♫♫♫
I guess strikethrough text doesn’t work too well. The boxes in my previous post should be strikethrough text.
The main reason behind OV’s hyperactivity is that he knows how badly the authorities screwed up during the mid-March snowstorm when thousands of motorists were trapped on the M1 motorway and elsewhere. Heartwarmingly, the civilian population showed a remarkable degree of cooperation and inventiveness – people living in the settlements along the motorway would bring food, provide shelter, use their own tractors and other vehicles to rescue their fellow countrymen and foreigners, new facebook groups would form to coordinate the bottom-up civilian effort (even an interactive map was made available where stranded people could indicate their position using their smartphones so that volunteers could go and rescue them) – but the official authorities were seen as doing practically nothing from about 4pm on 14th March (when the traffic stalled on the motorway) until about midday on the 15th, despite the fact that the meteorologists had forecast the snowstorm well in advance. OV evidently wanted to demonstrate that the disaster prevention agency, the police and the army were in control of the situation now (under his leadership of course).
This, in and of itself, is hardly surprising or objectionable, although posing as the mastermind behind the flood prevention efforts is clearly over the top. The problem is that, according to many volunteers working on the levees – because make no mistake, there are, thousands upon thousands of volunteers coming from all around the country, once again showing that the spirit of civilian cooperation is extremely high in this country -, OV’s appearances actually tend to hinder their work. While some of the stories circulating on facebook border on the incredible (or have even been refuted in the press), there are some sources that appear to be more reliable. If there’s any truth to this, that’s too bad. After all, it’s one thing for a politician to visit the dykes to gather some first-hand information (even to pose for the cameras), but it’s a completely different thing to actually hinder the work being done there. We can only hope that these reports are exaggerated.
What’s more important though is that the civilians, the volunteers, the average Joes (and Janes) are doing a spectacular job. From the outside, Hungarians might seem like an endlessly quarrelling lot, incapable of collaborating on anything. But what we are witnessing these days in terms of cooperation, self-organisation and selfless devotion to voluntary duty is again heartwarming. We’ve seen it first-hand in Győr and the Szigetköz, as well as on the Internet. The prime minister’s actions might be questionable but the civilian society is performing miracles every single day. This is surely a great time to be Hungarian!
They punched holes into the bags only when Orban ordered them.
I DONT CARE!
My grandpa played the TOTO (betting on soccer results). Never won.
Ilona collected passports. Never won.
Now would you please leave us alone? We don’t care about your horrible hobbies, like revisionism.
If Orban’s flood management was so good, how come the Red Cross was forbidden from taking donations for flood relief? How come mayors who happened not to be Fidesz members were shut out of preparedness and relief information? In a disaster, you don’t play politics, period. You don’t shut out an independent organization with a historically superb record and a transparent financial structure like the Red Cross in order to monopolize donations by funds controlled by politicians and with not accountability whatsoever for how those funds get spent. You don’t shut out local authorities from information and resources because they have the wrong party membership (or no membership at all). These moves by the Orban government needlessly and recklessly has the potential to put lives and property at risk. That’s not disaster management, that’s just plain evil.
“Orbán asks Bakondi: “How much is that?” Bakondi replies, “Meaning what? In time?” Orbán pointing toward the Danube: “Until it comes up.” At this point one of the experts who is standing by tries to explain the situation, but Orbán is waiting for an answer from Bakondi: “How much water? In your opinion how high will it come up?” Bakondi: “Where? There? Yes.” … Orbán: “Are we raising it to 85?” Everybody nods.”
Well, it’ve been done before:
– Captain to engine room: How much?
– Engine room to captain: Hmmm…. Eighty-five!
– Captain to engine room: What eighty-five?
– Engine room to captain: What how much…?
GW: 100% agree with you!
Örkény István: A termelés zavartalanul folyik
(Egy 1977-es evjaratu vicc közigazgatási és szociálpszichológiai továbbgondolása)
– Halló, gépterem?
– Skultéti, jelentkezem.
– Mennyi, Skultéti?
– Mi harminchárom?
– Mi mennyi, főmérnök úr?
– Az, ami harminchárom.
– Nem annyinak kellett volna lennie?
– Mindegy, Skultéti, csak csinálják tovább.
Istvan Orkeny: The production continues undisturbed
(The further administrative and socialpsychological analisys of a joke from 1977, Pest)
– Hallo, engine room?
– Skulteti reporting!
– How much, Skulteti?
– What is thirty-three?
– What is is how much, Chief Engineer?
– That is thirty-three.
– Shouldn’t be that much?
– Doesn’t matter, Skulteti, just continue on.
These (great) points aside, it’s great that a PM or leader stay on top of things to make sure that everyone has the resources they need. That said, they generally stay away because they know their presence will be disruptive to those trying to get on with it. If OV was truly concerned he would have respected his role but he didn’t, he over played his hand and to that end the whole “I care” thing looks like a complete sham.
This currency trades at such low volumes and such low liquidity that it could be any number of things. Because of this you can expect bounciness of 1 – 3% as simply being normal, can happen in a single trade. The bigger action is in the futures market because that’s where most companies go to buy currency. It’s the only way you can do any planning/forecasting when dealing with the wonky little currencies.
mwahahahahahahaha this is big fun here 🙂 weeird people hanging around here. Soon someone will mention Soros I guess 🙂
Probably I’ve missed this from Örkény or managed to forget somehow, but I have heard my “original” version sometimes in the mid sixties from one of my schoolmates, – he even imitated the loudspeaker pinching his nostrils – and it stuck.
However, the level of expertise speaks for itself: what would have happened with all those lost lives without our great leader showing the way, telling what to do, and asking all these invaluable questions…
Thank God (whichever – take your pick!) now we are all safe!
Have you seen this video on The Economist blog?
Judging from this and the most recent coverage in the printed edition, The Economist seems to take the view, that the EU should not push Orban too radically because that would be counterproductive, it would strengthen Jobbik and Orban himself, and would increase anti-EU sentiments.
They also claim that Orban would win if there were elections today.
They suggest the EU should wait until Orban’s bad economic policy destroys the country and then Hungarians will turn away from Orban anyway.
What do you think?
I disagree with them.
1. It’s impossible to predict that Orban would win an election today when 50% of eligible voters WILL NOT say who they would vote for.
2. Most people want Hungary to remain a member of the EU. In fact, most Hungarians will be disappointed in the EU if they Brussels do not challenge Orban over his antidemocratic policies. The EU’s passivity might provoke more disappointment in the majority of Hungarians than criticism. I don’t think they should use the “nuclear option”, but they should put more pressure on Orban, especially in the view of the Venice Commission’s report. The EU would be making a huge mistake not tackling such a U-turn in a member state re democracy, in terms of their own future, as well.
3. I wouldn’t like Hungarian economy to collapse before Orban is voted out just so the EU can wash their hands. This is such a cynical attitude.
Hungarians need guidance and enlightment, like the letter from Tavares. But the EU should not fall into Orban’s traps of peacock dancing all the time, they are going to make themselves look ridiculous soon.
EU must publish every morning headlines about the oppression and exploitation in Hungary.
They have to open an Amnesty Europe office in every big Hungarian town.
They would be the protectors of the ordinary Hungarians, who cry for help.
Back on topic: one of the reasons behind Orban’s hyperactivity on the flood issue is that he misinterpreted the failure at the snowstorm. He was at some Brussels summit at the time, and he thinks chaos and catastrophe happened because he was away and nobody was in charge.
He is wrong, chaos and catastrophe happened because people who were in charge weren’t very well prepared. As now, if the flood prevention is successful, it will not be his victory, but the experts’.
It is a pathetic idea that a PM should be micromanaging floods. I’m trying to imagine Cameron running around, sleep-deprived, pretending to be in charge – ludicrous. 😀
Opposition leader Bajnai is taped over by Fidesz gov’t spokesman Szijjarto:
News item: Putin lectures Obama on Privacy
Reminds one of Orban lecturing Barosso…
An Orangutan and a Chimpanzee come in from the cold…
Cheshire cat, for me what the Economist wrote need not be in opposition to what you wrote. I read only what you communicated about the piece but you wrote “push too radically”. That can mean a lot, for instance “the nuclear option”. But even if it is understood as you wrote, such approach appears quite likely from outside. People in Hungary should start to believe that 1) Matolcsy economics CANNOT but lead to economic disaster, and 2) that the EU NEEDS the support and involvement of Hungarians for putting effective pressure on OV. Also, this will be served best through organisations (movements, parties) in Hungary which communicate with “Brussels” and EU institutions – but people in Hungary do not wish to be “political” and do not wish to be associated with a “party”. Only given this, the strategy sketched by the Economist seems “reasonable” even if it appears cynical. The EU cannot force changes in Hungary if there are no Hungarians who will put them into practice. So more than a minimum of people who are willing to engage in public matters is a precondition for a better solution than this “cynical” one. That message should be included in the “101”.
I am not sure. I think why things were falling apart is because he installed so much autocracy, that his minions were to scared to make any decisions without him. They would of been much rather make decisions when he says it, then good decisions when he is away. In film circles they often say that about some of the directors that they are only good because they surround themselves with people who to pull off a job. When things work out, the director takes credit for it, when they not, he will blame everyone around and hire a new crew for his next job.
Cheshire Cat on the Economist. I completely agree with you. The Orbán government tries to frighten the EU with this scenario when we know that Fidesz is moving closer and closer to Jobbik in order to get their votes. One must not fall for their propaganda and I think the western politicians should be warned by people who follow Hungarian affairs closely that this is a self-serving argument on Viktor Orbán’s part.
Comments are closed.